This hardcover textbook has 170 lessons that review and extend skills taught in previous levels. Review in each lesson keeps previous skills current. The text and exercises abound in real-life and Bible applications. New concepts include the following areas.

*Percents*—Part-year interest, sales and property tax.

*Measures*—Conversion between Bible, metric, and English systems.

*Graphs*—Double-line graphs, rectangle graphs.

*Geometry*—Pythagorean rule, surface and volume of sphere.

*Algebra*—Polynomials, computation with signed numbers and exponents.

*Finances*—Compound interest formula and tables, writing checks, and maintaining and reconciling the account balance.

*Numbers*—Extracting square roots, base twelve and base two numeration, scientific notation, and statistics.

Quizzes and speed tests are provided in a separate booklet with tear-out sheets.

Chapter tests are also in a separate booklet.

The teacher's manual comes in two volumes. Each lesson has full-size pupil's pages, with answers filled in. Extra pages guided the teacher in lesson preparation and include answer keys for quizzes, speed tests, and chapter tests. In addition to these regular features, the Grade 8 teacher's manuals provide a solution key for reading problems and the more difficult exercises.

### Contents of the Teacher's Manuals

- Materials for This Course

#### To The Teacher

- Basic Philosophy
- Plan of the Course
- Pupil's Book
- Teacher's Manual
- General Class Procedure
- Quizzes and Speed Tests
- Chapter Tests
- Evaluating Test Results
- Disposition of the Corrected Tests
- Grading

#### Chapter 1: Basic Mathematical Operations

- 1. Working With Large Numbers
- 2. Understanding Place Value and Rounding
- 3. Understanding Roman Numerals
- 4. Using the Commutative and Associative Laws
- 5. Adding Mentally
- 6. Reviewing Subtraction
- 7. Subtracting Mentally
- 8. Reviewing Multiplication
- 9. Multiplying Mentally
- 10. Using the Distributive Law
- 11. Reviewing Division
- 12. Dividing Mentally, Part 1
- 13. Dividing Mentally, Part 2
- 14. Reading Problems: Choosing the Correct Operation
- 15. Chapter 1 Review
- 16. Chapter 1 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 2: English and Metric Measures

- 17. English Units of Linear Measure and Weight
- 18. English Units of Capacity
- 19. English Units of Area
- 20. Units of Time
- 21. Metric Units of Linear Measure
- 22. Metric Units of Weight
- 23. Metric Units of Capacity
- 24. Metric Units of Area
- 25. Adding and Subtracting Compound Measures
- 26. Multiplying and Dividing Compound Measures
- 27. Converting Between English and Metric Measures
- 28. Converting Between Fahrenheit and Celsius Temperatures
- 29. Distance, Rate, and Time
- 30. Understanding Bible Measures
- 31. Reading Problems: Choosing the Necessary Facts
- 32. Chapter 2 Review
- 33. Chapter 2 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 3: Factoring and Fractions

- 34. Finding Prime Factors
- 35. Finding Greatest Common Factors and Lowest Common Multiples
- 36. Using Common Fractions To Express Parts
- 37. Adding and Subtracting Common Fractions
- 38. Multiplying Fractions
- 39. Dividing Fractions, Part 1
- 40. Dividing Fractions, Part 2
- 41. Finding a Number When a Fractional Part of It is Known
- 42. Mental Division of Proper Fractions
- 43. Reading Problems Containing Fractions
- 44. Reading Problems: Deciding What Information is Missing
- 45. Chapter 3 Review
- 46. Chapter 3 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 4: Decimals, Ratios, and Proportions

- 47. Using Decimals to Express Fractional Parts
- 48. Decimals in Multiplication
- 49. Decimals in Division
- 50. Rounding Decimals and Expressing Fractions as Decimals
- 51. Multiplying by the Simpler Method
- 52. Ratios: Tools of Comparison
- 53. Direct Proportions
- 54. Inverse Proportions
- 55. Reading Problems: Using Direct and Inverse Proportions
- 56. Applying Direct Proportions to Maps
- 57. Applying Direct Proportions to Scale Drawings
- 58. Chapter 4 Review
- 59. Chapter 4 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 5: Mastering Percents

- 60. Expressing Rates as Percents
- 61. Finding Percentages
- 62. Rates Greater Than 100% and Less Than 1%
- 63. Calculating Increase and Decrease (Method 1)
- 64. Calculating Increase and Decrease (Method 2)
- 65. Finding What Percent One Number Is of Another
- 66. Finding the Percent of Increase or Decrease
- 67. Calculating the Base
- 68. Working With Commission
- 69. Solving Percent Problems Mentally
- 70. Reading Problems:Using Sketches
- 71. Chapter 5 Review
- 72. Chapter 5 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 6: Statistics and Graphs

- 73. The Arithmetic Mean
- 74. The Median and the Mode
- 75. The Histogram
- 76. The Picture Graph
- 77. The Bar Graph
- 78. The Line Graph
- 79. The Circle Graph
- 80. The Rectangle Graph
- 81. Chapter 6 Review
- 82. Chapter 6 Test (in test booklet)
- 83. Semester 1 Review
- 84. Semester 1 Test (in test booklet)

- Quizzes and Speed Tests
- Chapter Tests 1 - 6
- Index
- Symbols
- Formulas
- Tables of Measure

#### Chapter 7: Lines and Planes in Geometry

- 85. Geometric Terms
- 86. Working With Angles
- 87. Classifying Triangles
- 88. Constructing Triangles
- 89. Constructing Geometric Figures
- 90. Perimeters of Polygons
- 91. Circles and Circumferences
- 92. Areas of Squares and Rectangles
- 93. Areas of Parallelograms and Triangles
- 94. Areas of Trapezoids
- 95. Areas of Circles
- 96. Areas of Compound Figures
- 97. Reading Problems: Solving Multistep Problems
- 98. Chapter 7 Review
- 99. Chapter 7 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 8: Geometric Solids and the Pythagorean Rule

- 100. Geometric Solids and Surface Area of Cubes
- 101. Surface Area of Rectangular Solids.
- 102. Surface Area of Cylinders
- 103. Surface Area of Square Pyramids
- 104. Surface Area of Spheres
- 105. Volume of Rectangular Solids and Cubes
- 106. Volume of Cylinders and Cones
- 107. Volume of Square Pyramids
- 108. Volume of Spheres
- 109. Understanding Square Roots
- 110. Extracting Square Roots
- 111. Extracting More Difficult Square Roots
- 112. Understanding the Pythagorean Rule
- 113. Applying the Pythagorean Rule
- 114. Reading Problems: Using Parallel Problems
- 115. Chapter 8 Review
- 116. Chapter 8 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 9: Mathematics and Finances

- 117. Checking Accounts: Using Deposit Tickets
- 118. Checking Accounts: Writing Checks
- 119. Checking Accounts: Maintaining Account Balances
- 120. Checking Accounts: Reconciling the Account
- 121. Savings Accounts and Simple Interest
- 122. Calculating Past-year Interest
- 123. Calculating Compound Interest
- 124. Using the Compound Interest Formula
- 125. Calculating Sales Tax and Property Tax
- 126. Calculating Profit
- 127. Calculating Profit as a Percent of Sales
- 128. Reading Problems Relating to Finances
- 129. Mental Math: The Four Basic Operations
- 130. Chapter 9 Review
- 131. Chapter 9 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 10: Introduction to Algebra

- 132. Identifying Algebraic Expressions
- 133. Order of Operations
- 134. Evaluating Algebraic Expressions
- 135. Adding and Subtracting Monomials
- 136. Using Addition and Subtraction to Solve Equations
- 137. Using Multiplication and Division to Solve Equations
- 138. Reading Problems: Writing Equations
- 139. Exponents and Literal Numbers
- 140. Exponents in Multiplication
- 141. Exponents in Division
- 142. Chapter 10 Review
- 142. Chapter 10 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 11: Signed Numbers, Tables, and Graphs

- 144. Introduction to Signed Numbers.
- 145. Adding Signed Numbers
- 146. Subtracting Signed Numbers
- 147. Multiplying and Dividing Signed Numbers
- 148. Evaluating Expressions With Signed Numbers
- 149. Constructing Tables From Formulas
- 150. Constructing Graphs From Formulas
- 151. Polynomials and Signed Numbers
- 152. Reading Problems: More Practice with Equations
- 153. Chapter 11 Review
- 154. Chapter 11 Test (in test booklet)

#### Chapter 12: Other Numeration Systems and Final Reviews

- 155. Reading Electric Meters
- 156. Using Scientific Notation
- 157. The Concept of Base in Numeration
- 158. The Duodecimal (Base Twelve) Numeration System
- 159. The Binary (Base Two) Numeration System
- 160. Review of Base Twelve and Base Two Numeration
- 161. Final Review of Basic Mathematical Operations and Measures
- 162. Final Review of Mental Calculation, Factoring, and Fractions
- 163. Final Review of Decimals, Ratios, and Proportions
- 164. Final Review of Percents and Statistics
- 165. Final Review of Plane Geometry and Graphs
- 166. Final Review of Solid Geometry and the Pythagorean Rule
- 167. Final Review of Finances
- 168. Final Review of Algebra
- 169. Review of Chapter 12 and Final Review
- 170. Final Test (in test booklet)

- Quizzes and Speed Tests
- ...
- 86. Speed Test: Basic Math Facts
- ...
- 132. Quiz: Calculating Interest
- ...

- Chapter Tests 7 - 12
- Index
- Symbols
- Formulas
- Tables of Measure